Type-2 Diabetes

Type-2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in the way the body regulates and uses sugar (glucose) as a fuel. This long-term (chronic) condition results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to disorders of the circulatory, nervous and immune systems.

•   In type 2 diabetes, there are primarily two interrelated problems at work. Your pancreas does not produce enough insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — and cells respond poorly to insulin and take in less sugar.

• Type-2 diabetes  is generally associated with

  1.    Visceral obesity
  2.    Hypertension
  3.     Dyslipidemia

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:

•   Weight. Being overweight or obese is a main risk.

•   Fat distribution. Storing fat mainly in your abdomen — rather than your hips and thighs — indicates a greater risk. Your risk of type 2 diabetes rises if you’re a man with a waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) or a woman with a measurement above 35 inches (88.9 centimeters).

•   Inactivity. The less active you are, the greater your risk. Physical activity helps control your weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.

•   Family history. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes..

•   Blood lipid levels. An increased risk is associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the “good” cholesterol — and high levels of triglycerides.

•   Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45.

•   Prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to type 2 diabetes.

•   Pregnancy-related risks. Your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases if you developed gestational diabetes when you were pregnant or if you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms).

•   Polycystic ovary syndrome. Having polycystic ovary syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes

See your doctor if you notice the following

•   Increased thirst

•   Frequent urination

•   Increased hunger

•   Unintended weight loss

•   Fatigue

•    Blurred vision

•     Slow-healing sores

•     Frequent infections

•    Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet

•    Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck

Diagnosis / Investigations:

  The American Diagnosis Associations (ADA) criteria for

1.   Hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c)  level of 6.5% higher

The HbA1c test is a blood test that provides information about your average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months.

2.    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 126mg/dL of higher

3.    2 hour plasma glucose level of 200mg/dL(or) higher During a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

4.      A random plasma of 200mg /dl (or) higher in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia

Interpretation of OGTT results:

    FBS (mg/dL) Two hours PPBS (mg/dL)  Normal  <100  <140

Other   Investigations:

1.    Urinalysis

2.     Glycated hemoglobin

3.     Fasting Lipid Profile

4.      Renal Function Tests(urea, creatinine)


1.     Life style changes

2.     Oral Anti-diabetic drugs

3.     Insulin

A healthy lifestyle includes:

•      Eating healthy foods. Choose foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

•     Getting active. Aim for 150 or more minutes a week of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity, such as a brisk walk, bicycling, running or swimming.

•     Losing weight. Losing a modest amount of weight and keeping it off can delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. If you have prediabetes, losing 7% to 10% of your body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes.

•      Avoiding inactivity for long periods. Sitting still for long periods can increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. Try to get up every 30 minutes and move around for at least a few minutes.

OLIVE diagnostics is a diagnostic center in Bhimavaram with an aim and vision to provide quality diagnostic services Our diagnostic center is designed to accommodate all the high-end diagnostic facilities for the patients and provide home collection of samples

When it comes to Diabetes mellitus, it is good to get diagnosed as early as possible. So come and get tested immediately

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